Bibliography- WorldofJuice

12/05/22

Annotated Bibliography

  1. Director, M. C. A., Coleman, M., Director, A., Associate, G. G. P. and O., Griffin, G., Associate, P. and O., Gordon Director, P., Gordon, P., Director, Rosenthal, J., Mathema, S., Johns, M., Truong, T. Q., Sozan, M., Murphy, N., Jarsulic, M., & Hughes, S. (2022, November 7). The opioid epidemic demands public health solutions, not false claims about immigration. Center for American Progress. From https://www.americanprogress.org/article/the-opioid-epidemic-demands-public-health-solutions-not-false-claims-about-immigration/

Retrieved on: 11/09/22

This source was beneficial in understanding President Trump’s position and actions taken in the face of the opioid crisis as well as President Biden’s position and actions taken in response to the matter. The article also provided me with an estimation for future opioid overdoses in 2029.

  1. (DCD), D. C. D. (n.d.). Opioid crisis statistics. HHS.gov. From https://www.hhs.gov/opioids/about-the-epidemic/opioid-crisis-statistics/index.html

Retrieved on: 10/08/22

This source was beneficial in giving me a good estimate on the amount of people who misused prescription pain relievers as well as the age of people misusing opioids which was 12 years and older. This article also provides me with the fact that more than 760,000 people died since 1999 from a drug overdose per 2021 statistics and two out of three drug overdose deaths in 2018 involved an opioid.

  1. 16 defendants, including 12 physicians, sentenced to prison for distributing 6.6 million opioid pills and submitting $250 million in false billings. The United States Department of Justice. (2022, March 9). https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/16-defendants-including-12-physicians-sentenced-prison-distributing-66-million-opioid-pills

Retrieved on: 10/09/22

This source provided me with the platform to say that not all doctors are looking out for your health and can be corrupt. It also helped me show how doctors can make money from the prescription of opioids and the exploitation of addicts through doctors overprescribing. This also gives me a total amount of opioids distributed from immoral doctors (6.6 million opioids) and the amount of money made off of them (250 million dollars). This also helps show corruption can happen in the medical field.

  1. Opioids market size, Trends & Growth Analysis Report, 2030. Opioids Market Size, Trends & Growth Analysis Report, 2030. (n.d.).From https://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/opioids-market

Retrieved on:11/05/22

This provided me support in showing that the opioid industry is a more than profitable business. It gave me the global market value of opioids at 22.66 billion dollars in 2021 showing me that a significant amount of money has to have a reason behind this which would be immoral doctors pushing opioids onto addicts and the public for a financial gain. This also gives evidence of the global opioid market growing in future evaluations of the global market value of opioids.

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, December 16). Talk to your doctor about managing your pain. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. From https://www.cdc.gov/injury/features/manage-your-pain/index.html#:~:text=Doctors%20prescribe%20opioids%20%E2%80%93%20like%20hydrocodone,or%20for%20certain%20health%20conditions.

Retrieved on: 10/08/22

This gave me an idea of when doctors would typically prescribe opioids to patients and told me how addictive opioids can be and the possibility of overdose.The article also gives me a representation of possible side effects or dependencies that can occur from taking opioids.

  1. Anti-kickback statute and physician self-referral laws (stark laws). American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA). (n.d.). From https://www.asahq.org/quality-and-practice-management/managing-your-practice/timely-topics-in-payment-and-practice-management/anti-kickback-statute-and-physician-self-referral-laws-stark-laws#:~:text=The%20federal%20Anti%2DKickback%20Statute,by%20federal%20health%20care%20programs.

Retrieved on:11/22/22

This article showed me the federal law passed by the government that makes kickbacks a criminal statute in healthcare. This also provided me a chart with financial penalties, jail time, and fines applied to healthcare providers.

  1.  Alhussain, K., Shah, D., Thornton, J. D., & Kelly, K. M. (2019, December 1). Familial opioid misuse and family cohesion: Impact on family communication and well-being

https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/wk/addit/2019/00000018/00000004/art00002

Retrieved on: 11/01/22

This provided me with support in showing how the use of opioids hurt and can break up families. The use of opioids in families causes a communication problem within the family besides the obvious opioid use of one family member. This creates a separation within each individual of the family causing them to form positive relationships with some family members compared to others.

  1. The Origin and Causes of the Opioid Epidemic. The origin and causes of the opioid epidemic. (n.d.). https://www.georgetownbehavioral.com/blog/origin-and-causes-of-opioid-epidemic

Retrieved on: 10/08/22

This gave me the origins of the use of opioids, which was during the Civil War. This also gave me statistics on the amount of people who suffer from opioid disorders and the amount of people who die each day due to opioid overdoses. This also provided me support in showing doctors being corrupted by the financial gain of opioids as well as evidence showing doctors pushing the prescription of opioids.

  1. Long and short term effects of opioid abuse – pinelands. Pinelands Recovery Center of Medford. (2021, November 17). https://www.pinelandsrecovery.com/long-and-short-term-effects-of-opioid-abuse/#:~:text=These%20include%20muscle%20and%20bone,can%20go%20on%20for%20years

Retrieved on: 11/01/22

This article provided me with the long term and short term health effects that can occur while abusing opioids.

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, November 10). U.S. opioid dispensing rate maps. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. From https://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/rxrate-maps/index.html

Retrieved on: 10/09/22

This gave me an exact number of opioids dispensed throughout America and its states. This also gave me a colorful map detailing the amount of opioids dispensed per state in the U.S.

  1. Dyer, O. (2017, August 4). 93 Year Old U.S. Doctor is Sentenced to 10 Years in Prison For Opioid Distribution. https://www.proquest.com/openview/ee080fd5c194b4e584c5733c8f34f036/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=2043523. https://www.proquest.com/openview/ee080fd5c194b4e584c5733c8f34f036/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=2043523

Retrieved from 10/08/22

This gave me another source to show how immoral doctors can be corrupted by financial gain through the prescription of opioids. This article also shows how the overprescription of opioids occurs in other states around the U.S.

  1. Reporter, R. P. H. D. (2020, February 21). Drug company Perks Spur Doctors’ prescriptions. WebMD. From https://www.webmd.com/drug-medication/news/20200221/brand-name-rx-rise-after-docs-get-drug-company-perks-study

Retrieved on: 11/22/22 

This article provided evidence showing that doctors get a specific kickback or “bonus” for prescribing certain big name medicines. This shows that corruption throughout the medical field can occur through “bonuses” given out to doctors for prescribing big name drugs.

  1. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2022, July 21). Overdose death rates. National Institutes of Health. From https://nida.nih.gov/research-topics/trends-statistics/overdose-death-rates

This showed me an exact estimate of the death rates caused by opioids and prescribed opioids per year from 1999 to 2020. It was beneficial in showing me how detrimental opioids can be to the population of America.

  1. Van Zee, A. (2009, February). The promotion and marketing of Oxycontin: Commercial Triumph, public health tragedy. American journal of public health. From https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2622774/

Retrieved on: 10/09/22

This was an important source in showing how big companies like Purdue Pharma market and advocate for opioids such as oxycontin This also shows how the sales for the opioid (oxycontin) grew from 48 million dollars to 1.1 billion dollars in 4 years. 

  1. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. (2020, November 18). Marijuana. Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements-marijuana/art-20364974

Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. (2022, April 30). Acupuncture. Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/acupuncture/about/pac-20392763#:~:text=The%20risks%20of%20acupuncture%20are,where%20the%20needles%20were%20inserted.

Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. (2022, September 30). Chiropractic adjustment. Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/chiropractic-adjustment/about/pac-20393513#:~:text=Some%20people%20experience%20minor%20side,the%20body%20that%20were%20treated.

Retrieved on 11/30/22

These articles provided me with alternatives to opioid use which would include acupuncture, chiropractic adjustment, and medical cannabis use. Each alternative has its benefits and risks. Some benefits include; helping people lean off their opioid abuse, relieve patients of their pain, and use drugs less harmful to the body and mind such as cannabis.

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