- Allirot, X., Saulis, L., Seyssel, K., Graeppie-Dulac, J., Roth, H., Charrie, A., Goudable, J., Blond, E., Disse, E., & Laville, M. (2013, January 17). An isocaloric increase of eating episodes in the morning contributes to decrease energy intake at lunch in lean men. Science Direct. Retrieved November 21, 2022, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0031938413000243
Background: This article was a study done on “normal-weight” men, one group of men were to eat a meal in one sitting, and the other group were to eat breakfast in 4 different isocaloric installments, after which a blood sample was taken to test levels of ghrelin, glucose, insulin, and other substances in the body. A daily log monitoring energy levels was also done by each of the participants.
How I used it: I used this article to help aid in my argument by providing evidence that states how eating more frequently throughout the day can help to boost your energy levels and usage.
- Bellisle, F., McDevitt, R., & Prentice, A. M. (2007, March 9). Meal frequency and energy balance: British Journal of Nutrition. Cambridge Core. Retrieved November 8, 2022, from https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition/article/meal-frequency-and-energy-balance/478F4065A5C5BC1B6E15A8482F8DC239
Background: This article was a study done on the relationship between people’s eating frequency and body weight, and provides evidence on how eating lower calorie meals more frequently rather than larger meals less frequently can aid in reducing body weight. This study goes into the metabolic advantages of eating smaller meals more often, as well as the increased energy one would have throughout the day.
How I used it: This article benefits my argument because it explains how eating more frequent, smaller meals can help avoid obesity.
- Chapelot, D., Marmonier, C., Aubert, R., Allegre, C., Fantino, M., & Louis-Sylvestre, J. (2012, September 6). Consequence of Omitting or Adding a Meal in Man on Body Composition, Food Intake, and Metabolism. Wiley Online Library. Retrieved November 21, 2022, from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1038/oby.2006.28
Background: This article demonstrated the consequences on body composition and metabolic health of removing or adding a meal to an adult male’s diet. Throughout this study, which was done over a month long time period, blood samples were taken from participants to test macronutrients absorbed from meals, numbers which also went up in participants that added a meal to their diet
How I used it: I was able to use this study because it showed that omitting meals resulted in an increase in fat mass, and adding a meal showed a decrease in fat mass, as well as an increase in energy content
- Chiva, M. (2007, March 9). Cultural aspects of meals and meal frequency: British Journal of Nutrition. Cambridge Core. Retrieved November 7, 2022, from https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition/article/cultural-aspects-of-meals-and-meal-frequency/EA11E4A542A24FF94A468DA5971648B3
Background: This article touches on the impacts one’s culture has on their eating habits. This articles dives into the historical, ethnological, anthropological, and sociological perspectives on culture and diet, and explains how different cultures have different influences on how people view food and diet, what they believe is a healthy diet, and how availability of different kinds of food pau a role in what our diets are.
How I used it: I used this article to explain how different cultures build up perceptions of what a healthy diet looks like, and how this can influence our behavior based on how we were raised
- Derrickson, J. P., Sakai, M., & Anderson, J. (2008, July 30). Interpretations of the “Balanced meal” household food security indicator. Journal of Nutrition Education. Retrieved October 18, 2022, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1499404606601851
Background: This article discusses the loosely defined term “balanced meals,” and puts a more rigid definition to it. It explains a study done where an interview was conducted on 77 participants, where they were asked two questions. The first was if they could afford to eat balanced meals, and the second being how they personally defined balanced meals. More than half of the participants defined a balanced meal as one that consisted of at least three different food groups
How I used it: I used this article to define the term “balanced meal” because that is a vague term that could be interpreted in many different ways
- Hartmann, C., Siegrist, M., K. van der Horst, K. (2016). Snack frequency: associations with healthy and unhealthy food choices Public Health Nutr. from https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/public-health-nutrition/article/snack-frequency-associations-with-healthy-and-unhealthy-food-choices/888B1F635485431C612DE19B4BC9442D
Background: This article explained a study done where over 6000 adults were examined to see if there was an association between snack frequency and food choices. It was found that a high snack frequency correlated to both healthy and unhealthy food choices, with women typically making the healthier choice, and men usually making the unhealthier choice. It was also noted in the article that food choices have evolved a ton based upon the changes to our environment and lifestyle over the past few decades.
How I used it: I used this article to aid in my argument by shedding light on how as we evolve as humans, our diets will evolve as well. This helped me explain how everyone’s diets are different depending on culture and environment.
- Holmbäck, I., Ericson, U., Gullberg, B., & Wirfält, E. (2010, May 26). A high eating frequency is associated with an overall healthy lifestyle in middle-aged men and women and reduced likelihood of general and Central Obesity in men: British Journal of Nutrition. Cambridge Core. Retrieved November 8, 2022, from https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition/article/high-eating-frequency-is-associated-with-an-overall-healthy-lifestyle-in-middleaged-men-and-women-and-reduced-likelihood-of-general-and-central-obesity-in-men/A0A079076CF60DD0E918345DC33DD8AA
Background: This source explained how eating frequency has an effect on BMI, waist circumference, diet composition, and lifestyle factors. It was found that a high eating frequency is associated with a healthier lifestyle due to having more energy throughout the day, a healthier dietary pattern with less snacking, and a reduced likelihood of obesity, resulting from the higher energy levels and healthier eating choices.
How I used it: I used this article to explain how low eating frequency is associated with unhealthy life choices, such as drinking, smoking, and a more sedentary lifestyle, and how a high eating frequency is associated with healthy lifestyle choices.
- Leidy, H. J., & Campbell, W. W. (2010, December 1). The Effect of Eating Frequency on Appetite Control and Food Intake: Brief Synopsis of Controlled Feeding Studies. Academic.oup.com. Retrieved November 7, 2022, from https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/141/1/154/4630606
Background: This article explained how increased eating frequency is said to increase metabolism, reduce hunger, and reduce body weight. It explains how we can store energy and nutrients better when we eat our meals in smaller portions, but eat more of them throughout the day. This leads to higher energy levels, and thus correlates to a more active lifestyle, which in turn helps reduce the risk of obesity.
How I used it: I used this article to explain how eating frequency has an effect on appetite control, and how increased eating frequency influences how active our lifestyle is.
- Marmonier, C., Chapelot, D., & Louis-Syvestre, J. (1999, November 1). Metabolic and behavioral consequences of a snack consumed in a satiety state. Academic.oup.com. Retrieved November 21, 2022, from https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/70/5/854/4729128#111368131
Background: This article explained a study done on eleven “young lean men” who had their diets monitored, specifically their meal frequency and their snacking rate. It was found that the men who consumed meals more frequently, had a lesser frequency of snacking, and tended to choose healthy snacks when they did.
How I used it: I used this article to form a relationship between a higher eating frequency, and a lower snacking frequency, thus making a correlation to healthier food consumption
- Metzner, H. L., Lamphiear, D. E., Wheeler, N. C., & Larkin, F. A. (1977, May 1). The relationship between frequency of eating and adiposity in adult men and women in the Tecumseh Community Health Study. Academic.oup.com. Retrieved November 21, 2022, from https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-abstract/30/5/712/4650179
Background: This article was about the relationship between obesity and eating frequency and timing. The study done to find this was conducted on 1000 men and 1000 women, who were surveyed on when and what they ate throughout the day. It was found that eating in multiple smaller portions throughout the day was inversely related to obesity, and eating in larger portions less frequently was correlated to obesity in adults.
How I used it: I used this article to dispute a counterargument to my claim, which stated that caloric intake was the only factor that played into obesity risk, however it allowed me to rebut with the fact that timing of caloric intake also plays a role
- Teixeira, G. P., Guimarães, K. C., Soares, A. G. N. S., Marqueze, E. C., Moreno, C. R. C., Mota, M. C., & Crispim, C. A. (2022, June 30). Role of chronotype in dietary intake, meal timing, and Obesity: A Systematic Review. OUP Academic. Retrieved October 18, 2022, from https://academic.oup.com/nutritionreviews/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/nutrit/nuac044/6623541
Background: This article explained that there are a multitude of dietary habits that contribute to our risk of obesity. These factors include energy levels, macronutrient intake, meal timing, and eating patterns. The article states that there are two types of eaters, late type, people who eat later in the day, and intermediate/early type, people who eat earlier and consistently throughout the day. It was found that late type eaters were at a higher risk of obesity than intermediate/early type eaters.
How I used it: I used this article to introduce the idea of late type eaters and early type eaters, and how meal timing matters when it comes to metabolic health and risk of obesity
- Thom, G., & Lean, M. (2017, February 15). Is there an optimal diet for weight management and metabolic health? Gastroenterology. Retrieved October 18, 2022, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0016508517301580
Background: This article explains how there are a wide range of diets that work for a wide range of people, and that no two diets are going to be the same. This article looks at the effectiveness of some popular diets, and judges how they would work on certain types of people, as well as how accessible the diets are
How I used it: I used this article to explain how there is no single right answer to how our diets should look like, and that diets will vary from person to person.