Annotated Bibliography-ilovecoffee

  1. Filbay, S., Pandya, T., Thomas, B., McKay, C., Adams, J., & Arden, N. (2019, August 19). Quality of life and life satisfaction in former athletes: A systematic review and meta-analysis – sports medicine. SpringerLink. Retrieved April 18, 2022, from

Background: This article discusses the ways that sports can both positively and negatively affect your life. The study focused on former athletes and their overall quality of life. The research studied over six thousand athletes and how the sport has affected their mentality and physicality. 

How I used it: I used it to discuss how athletes’ mental health is affected because of sports. I talked about how much technology has improved to give these athletes the best possible care, both physically and mentally. I talked about how athletes are able to outdo athletes of past in the number of years that they play at the highest level. This is largely because of the improved quality of life for athletes in the present day. 

  1. Froes, F. H. (n.d.). Is the Use of Advanced Materials in Sports Equipment Unethical? Is the use of advanced materials in sports equipment unethical? Retrieved March 8, 2022, from

Background: This article had a lot of interesting information about the literal material of different equipment. They talked about how material has improved and become more durable compared to what it used to be. The main focus of the article talks about whether these changes are ethical to the game or not. They discussed whether the game is advancing too much, making it too difficult and unsafe to play. 

How I used it: I talked a lot about the materials that they have used. The author, F.H. Froes talked about specifics like fibers in bicycle tires that have allowed the record holder to cut down their time by eight seconds, compared to the old material. So, details like this helped me argue that it is in fact the equipment that is improving. 

  1. Norton, K., & Olds, T. (2012, November 2). Morphological evolution of athletes over the 20th Century – Sports Medicine. SpringerLink. Retrieved April 19, 2022, from

Background: Norton focused on how much athletes have evolved over the past centuries. He studied how athletes who are larger, tend to have longer careers, depending on their size and durability. People’s height and mass play a huge role in sports and athletes success.

How I used it: I used this article to gain information and knowledge on “social factors” that impact sports players. While I did not directly quote information from this article, it gave me a general idea of aspects of sports that I would not necessarily focus on. They also talked about “gene farming” which is a concept I was not familiar with, but it allowed me to really understand how seriously people take this. 

  1. Norris, A. the A. L. (2019, April 29). Can we compare athletes from different times. Sporting Chance Press. Retrieved March 8, 2022, from

Background: David Epstein compiled statistics that helped support the large improvements that athletes have made from previous olympic games to the most recent. With the motto of “Faster, Higher, Stronger,” he talks about the tremendous improvements that athletes have made regarding their time improvements and capabilities. 

How I used it: I found this most helpful in my rebuttal argument. My main focus in my rebuttal was whether or not athletes can be compared to athletes of the past. Epstein focused on  specifics from former athletes to current athletes in the olympic games and how much their time results differentiated. He also focused on how the technology has changed and what impact that has had on olympic athletes. 

  1. Wilson, N., Thomson, A., & Riches, P. (2017, April 8). Development and presentation of the first design process model for sports equipment design – research in engineering design. SpringerLink. Retrieved March 8, 2022, from

Background: This article focused mostly on the design model for sports equipment. They wanted to find a general design process that would fulfill the generic requirements for different types of equipment. They use user involvement immensely to get their criticism and fix whatever it is that may be wrong with the specific process. 

How I used it: I generally talked about the design processes for different equipment and how different companies follow different guidelines. These tend to have impacts on the profit made from the product depending on the quality. This gave me information on different companies and their processes, which was very revealing about their efforts to please customers. 

  1. Maffulli, N., Longo, U. G., Gougoulias, N., Caine, D., & Denaro, V. (2010, August 14). Sport injuries: A review of outcomes. OUP Academic. Retrieved April 27, 2022, from

Background: This article looked at people with injuries who needed to end their sports careers early. They looked at their injuries now and how it has affected them and their quality of life. They looked at the physical and physiological aspects of change that were made to their bodies and lifestyle.

How I used it: I used this as a way to gauge quality of life and health risks that can come from an incomplete career. This also gave me a good understanding of how important and pivotal it is to have such highly educated doctors and specialists to help heal athletes.

  1. McCartney, G., Thomas, S., Thomson, H., Scott, J., Hamilton, V., Hanlon, P., Morrison, D. S., & Bond, L. (2010, May 20). The health and socioeconomic impacts of major multi-sport events: Systematic Review (1978-2008). The BMJ. Retrieved April 27, 2022, from

Background: This article focused on multisport events and the city who had to host each event. They looked at fifty four different studies to collect their data. The group of people who conducted the study wanted to see the economic benefits of hosting the event. While there was not enough information to come up with a clear solution, they are looked to extend this survey to an olympic game or another large event.

How I used it: I used this more as a way to gauge information generally about how sports can impact a city or a populated area. I ended up not using this article but I found it super interesting and decided to read and analyze it. 

  1. Review the psychological response to injury in student … (n.d.). Retrieved April 27, 2022, from

Background: This focused on the stress that comes behind an injured athlete. It can have a huge impact on the recovery time and efficiency. The experiment by Margot Putukian talked about the antecedents and emotional response that comes from an injury and common aspects of it as well. 

How I used it: This was more of an informative piece of evidence. It told me a lot about how important it is for people to use protective and durable equipment. Companies that produce equipment in quantity and not quality can lead athletes to injury and depressing thoughts, and that in itself is dangerous.

  1.  Lee, D.-chul, Duck-chul Lee From the Departments of Exercise Science (D.C.L., Sui, X., Xuemei Sui From the Departments of Exercise Science (D.C.L., Artero, E. G., Enrique G. Artero From the Departments of Exercise Science (D.C.L., Lee, I.-M., I-Min Lee From the Departments of Exercise Science (D.C.L., Church, T. S., Timothy S. Church From the Departments of Exercise Science (D.C.L., McAuley, P. A., Paul A. McAuley From the Departments of Exercise Science (D.C.L., Stanford, F. C., Fatima C. Stanford From the Departments of Exercise Science (D.C.L., KohlIII, H. W., Harold W. KohlIII From the Departments of Exercise Science (D.C.L., Blair, S. N., Steven N. Blair From the Departments of Exercise Science (D.C.L., & Guest Editor for this article was Vera Bittner. (2011, December 6). Long-term effects of changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index on all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in men. Circulation. Retrieved April 27, 2022, from

Background: The study focused on fitness and BMI rates that end up resulting in cardiovascular disease mortality in men. The conclusion was made that it is extremely important to maintain your fitness and work ethic because it will result in a lesser chance of getting diagnosed with diseases. 

How I used it: I talked about fitness tests and making sure that you are maintaining a proper heart rate and health essentials. This is another prime example of a way to track your health and safety.  

  1.  Khan, K. M., Thompson, A. M., Blair, S. N., Sallis, J. F., Powell, K. E., Bull, F. C., & Bauman, A. E. (2012, July 5). Sport and exercise as contributors to the Health of Nations. The Lancet. Retrieved April 27, 2022, from

Background: The study discussed the commonality of playing a sport in the United Kingdom. PhD’s looked at the overall health of different nations and how sports impact that percentage. They looked at the health risks and injury risks that come along with playing a sport and how it can impact a decision to play or not. 

How I used it: This backed up my other source and provided me with a better understanding not as much about my topic but about the olympic games themselves and the reasons for hosting the olympic games. 

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