1. Music education in adolescence –

Background: In this journal article published by Industry and Higher Education, a study compromised of 190 university students in one European country was conducted to examine the relationship between music education and entrepreneurship education and how an entrepreneurial identity is developed. It focuses on the learning transfer that occurs between the two and how many skills and characteristics of music students are also common in entrepreneurial individuals.

How I Used It: I used this article to examine how the character traits and skills that are developed in music education aid in the development of an entrepreneurial identity as well as how those skills are also transferrable to many other careers. Most specifically, I focused on how entrepreneurial ability is most commonly referred to as the creation of something from nothing and how oftentimes music is defined and literally is exactly that. Along with explaining how the development of creativity, accountability, proactivity, flexibility, the ability to generate new ideas, and the ability to work with others occur within music education, this article was invaluable in the way it explained how the skills and characteristics developed in music education directly correlate to those of an entrepreneurial individual.

2. Román-Caballero, R., Vadillo, M. A., Trainor, L. J., & Lupiáñez, J. (2022, January 25). Please don’t stop the music: A meta-analysis of the cognitive and academic benefits of instrumental musical training in childhood and adolescence. Educational Research Review.

Background: This article published by ELSEVIER presents an extremely in-depth and scientific study based on how musical training affects cognitive skill and academic success in childhood and adolescence. It proposes that music is an optimal cognitive training strategy on the basis that music requires perceptual modalities, sensorimotor integration, high-order cognitive process, effort, regular and motivated practice, the learning of progressively more difficult material, and adapting to different circumstances. It explains how the learning transfer of skills developed in music education is most probable in relation to instrumental training specifically.

How I Used It: I used this article primarily for the reason that it goes into the specifics of how music education promotes cognitive skill and academic success. In order for me to make a strong argument, these scientific findings allowed me to better address my targeted audience by presenting real studies done on the affects of music education and musical training. This article also presented a strong counter-argument in relation to how some children may just be in a better situation cognitively or even financially that allows them to reap more benefits from learning music. Even with that counter-argument, it was still made clear that it is important that students desires are still nurtured and can be pursued.

3. Correlation between math and Music ability. Brain Balance Achievement Centers.

Background: This article published by Brain Balance, an esteemed drug-free achievement center designed to strengthen brain connectivity through integrated approaches, explains the direct correlation between mathematics and music in the brain. It explains how both listening to and performing music can improve cognition and math skills by working on and strengthening the same parts of the brain that are used to solve spatial-temporal reasoning problems.

How I Used It: This article was invaluable in the direct connection it made between strengthening math skills and overall brain function with music. Although it does not directly correlate to music education per se, it does link not only listening but performing music to improved cognition. It also provided an extremely valuable piece of information known as the Mozart Effect as well as evidence to Einstein using music to help solve mathematical problems.

4. Gold, B. P., Frank, M. J., Bogert, B., & Brattico, E. (2013, August 21). Pleasurable music affects reinforcement learning according to the listener. Frontiers.

Background: This article published in Frontiers in Psychology gives extremely in-depth and academic details of how pleasurable, not neural, music has been known to affect reinforcement learning. Not only does it provide countless references to studies on the subject but it also presents its own study done with 90 volunteers from the University of Helsinki on how pleasurable music affects the brain. It explains how the dopamine release when hearing pleasurable music affects task performance, specifically accuracy and response time. This also highlights superior evidence for how this type of study can have many applications in therapy and education.

How I Used It: I used this article specifically for the way it showcases undeniable evidence for how studies that highlight how music affects the brain can have serious and impactful applications in therapy and more importantly in education.

5. Heimonen, M. (2008). Nurturing towards wisdom: Justifying music in the curriculum. Philosophy of Music Education Review

Background: This journal article published by Indiana University Press takes a philosophical approach towards the basic arguments for justifying music education in school curriculums. It explains how there should be a balance of freedom and discipline in curriculums. It also explains how “curriculum” has been overly politized and that curricula should be considered upon individual values and principles as much as they are based upon social values and principles.

How I Used It: I used this article primarily for the way it describes how simply accepting the views of those opposed to integrating music and the arts in school curriculums would be giving up one of the basic human rights that belong to everyone: the freedom of expression.


  1. Arts, M. &, Music & Arts. (2021, August 16). The most common arguments against music education (& how to counter them). The Vault at Music & Arts.

Background: This article explains the most popular arguments made against music education and ways in which they can be countered. The article explains how we need to champion our musicians and art-makers and how we must not lose faith in the fight of keeping music alive.

How I Used It: This article helped me to better understand the arguments that are made against keeping music education in schools. It allowed to me to get a more thorough understanding of where the minds of those opposed to music education are at. It also helped me to better formulate my own counter-arguments against those who disagree with music education. By connecting morals with facts this source helped me formulate my own argument to be better suited for my targeted audience, in a general sense.

7. M&Mquotes.html.

Background: This website is a collection of quotes from esteemed philosophers, mathematicians, scientists, musicians and so on that connect music and education in a way that demonstrates the beautiful and harmonious relationship between them.

How I Used It: I used a quote from English mathematician G.H. Hardy that basically described mathematicians as the makers of patterns and in order for those patterns to make sense and hold greatness the ideas must fit together harmoniously. Similarly, music is made off the basis of fitting patterns together in a way that is also beautiful and harmonious.

8. Oare, S. (2017, July 3). Music Education and 21st Century skills. Kansas Music Review. 

Background: In this article published by the Kansas Music Educators Association, music education is described as providing students with the ability to develop skills needed to be successful in daily life as well as in their careers. It explains how music education provides students with the opportunity to develop skills that promote social and emotion well-being, responsibility, strong character and work ethic, and adaptability. It also explains how discipline and critical thinking are crucial characteristics in building a successful student that are promoted within music education.

How I Used It: I used this article to emphasize the foundational skills that music education helps to develop. When considering how music education promotes a students well-being, sense of responsibility, work ethic, and character, I was able to easily connect this evidence with my sources that go more in depth in relation to how the skills that are developed also promote success and more specifically entrepreneurial identity.

9. Arts, M. &, Music & Arts. (2021, August 16). Benefits of Music Education. The Vault at Music & Arts.

Background: This article describes the various and noteworthy benefits of music education. It briefly explains the impact music education can have on test scores, language development, self-esteem, stress relief, and creativity. It even provides ways of donating to foundations in order to keep music education in schools!

How I Used It: Although very brief, this article was perfectly suited for supporting my hypothesis by directly relating the benefits music education can have to the way it effects children and adolescence. Although it didn’t provide me with specific details and direct studies of the benefits it was invaluable in the way it covered the benefits of music in an easily digestible manner.

10. Winner, E., & Hetland, L. (2000). The Arts in Education: Evaluating the Evidence for a Causal Link. Journal of Aesthetic Education34(3/4), 3–10.

Background: In this journal article published by the University of Illinois Press, it is established that the learning transfer effects of music education should justify its place in any curriculum. On the basis that we don’t justify math and science based on if it leads to stronger skills in English, there is no reason to justify music education in the same manner. Although, the findings of Winner and Hetland establish that there is likely causal relationship between music education and skills in other more “traditional academic areas.”

How I Used It: This article helped me to make the argument that music education can and does in fact positively influence skills in the “traditional academic areas.” I was also able to connect the findings that identified a causal relationship between music education and entrepreneurial identity in order to provide even more evidence for this argument.

This entry was posted in Uncategorized. Bookmark the permalink.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s