Bibliography – rushhourillusion

  1. Team, Marketing. “The Benefits of Studying with Music.” Florida National University, 13 Aug. 2019,

Background: This article written by the Marketing Team at Florida National University broke down the positive effects of studying with music. There are about 7 categories, along with the introduction, theory and conclusion, focusing on music helping students study. The categories include easing student stress, reducing test anxiety, improvement in performance, cures pain, focusing more, improving brain functions, and “Music, memory, emotions.”

How I Used It: I used this source within my Rebuttal Argument. I used this source to focus on the student music relationship. I used quotes from the source that included talking about the brain’s improved focus and engagement with music as well as how music can help process emotions to reduce being overwhelmed. Overall, just using this article to show in my argument the study of improvement in student performance in a few different ways due to music. 

  1. 🔬🎶, Eva Amsen. “When Music Is a Distraction.” Medium, Medium, 22 June 2018

Background: This article focuses on points that include music as a distraction to work.  Something the author brings up a few times is that music helps memorization, but  only certain music. As well as it depends on what studying you are doing as the claim is made that it does not help with reading comprehension. Another theme is that music is no music, there is no real difference. Although there is a difference between the type of music that the author describes. Overall just claiming it is a distraction to the general people at hand, but also acknowledges that it can be both distracting and helpful in different situations. 

How I Used It: I used this source in my Rebuttal argument to acknowledge some of the counter arguments against my hypothesis. I acknowledged the different points made by Amsen and discussed them, before attempting to prove them wrong at the end. I tended to focus on the topic that different music produced different outcomes, as well as the major topic of music distracts, not focuses. 

  1. Mack T. Henderson, Anne Crews, and Joan Barlow, A Study of the Effect of Music Distraction on Reading Efficiency.

Background: This five paper study focuses on whether or not specifically music is a distraction to college students practicing reading comprehension.  The study was done to show the effects of classical music and popular music and how distracting or influential they were being. The overall conclusion was that neither were distracting, but classical music proved more helpful. 

How I Used It: This was my final source used in my rebuttal argument. I used this study to focus on the topic of different music and different outcomes. To prove that although this might be true, certain music might not be considered distracting, just not as useful. I also pointed out that the conclusion of the study was indeed proving that neither genres were distracting, but one proved more effective than the other. 

  1.  Kiss, Luca, and Karina J. Linnell. “The Effect of Preferred Background Music on Task-Focus in Sustained Attention – Psychological Research.” SpringerLink, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 3 Aug. 2020,

Background: The source is introduced as a study of background music and the performance that stems from it. The study is broken down thoroughly into different categories and explains all from the participants to the results and discussion before reaching conclusions. Graphs and tables are shown to see the more numerical/graphical aspect of the study, besides just the words. Overall the study was proven to increase tasks and decrease mind-wandering. The music that was used within the study was a preferred background music to the participants. 

How I Used It: I used this article within my Causal Argument. Within the article I used a quote to discuss the preference of music and background music, and how that influenced the brain function. It was a smaller portion, but overall the topic used in relation to preferred background music over any background music. 

  1. Dabiran, Y. (2017). The effect of background music on cognitive task performance (Order No. 10622588). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1988352353). Retrieved from   

Background: This is a 112 page essay book focused on cognitive tasks associated with music and genres. As well as the music outcome leading to the overall performance and motivation of the person. Diving in depth with this study, a lot of the pages were filled with graphs and tables in relation to the study at hand. In the conclusion the author came to the consensus that music genre has no specific outcome, no genre has a specific effect all are similar. Some conclusions were found to have multiple outcomes such as motivating but also slightly distracting in certain situations, and more. 

How I Used It: I used this source within my causal argument. Since this source is very long, I did focus on the abstract, introduction, and conclusion although there was a lot of useful information throughout. Most of the first half, after my introduction, focuses on this source. I focus on most of the quotes where Dabiran focuses on the stimulation or arousal of the brain and how it positively affects the brain when working. It was very useful when discussing the overall outcome of working with music. It showed that there was another task, not just completing school, that music was proven beneficial to. 

  1. Schoenwald, K. (2020). Music in the workplace environment and productivity (Order No. 27739886). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (2384540781). Retrieved from 

Background: This source is another long one, 40 pages. The introduction starts us off with acknowledging the beginning of the study including the purpose, and research question. The continues to dive into the overall study, including the research and the outcome. The author comes to the conclusion that music within the actual workplace is very effective to their work production. Not only the self work effectiveness, but also a positive work environment is created when listening to music. 

How I Used It: I used this source in my causal argument. After talking about the work place environment, this source allowed me to focus on the students and college environment. The biggest use for this source was discussing that background music is useful in focusing, which allows one to retain the information easier. I also discussed a part where it brought emotions into the topic. Overall how different tempos and styles can affect emotions, where those emotions can trigger different cognitive behaviors.

  1. “Music Therapy.” Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei.,

Background: This source breaks down what music therapy is as well as how their program helps benefit children. The site uses photos to also show the therapy in action in a way, as well as the environment that children are in during the therapy. The school also even writes the benefits and effectiveness of the therapy on the patients. Overall, an overview of children’s music therapy including the introduction, benefits, and sessions.  

How I Used It: I used this source within my definition argument. Within my argument I used this to discuss more of the children aspect of music therapy. I explained the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital way of music therapy for the younger generation and what the children get out of it. I also talked about the skills that children gain from music therapy.

  1. Lisa J. Lehmberg University of … – College of the Arts.

Background: This nine page study focuses on music therapy and senior citizen relationships. Lehmberg breaks down the session itself, the music participation within the therapy that the elders participate in and what effect on their health it takes. The study itself focuses on the participation during the session in relation to the outcome of the specific areas of the seshion. Overall Lehmberg concludes that through her study that those who participate actively in the therapy session, exhibit all benefits in their lives from the music therapy. 

How I Used It: I used this source in my definition argument. This source allowed me to talk about the senior citizen way of music therapy, opposite of the children. Through this I also talked about the skills that the senior citizens develop from music therapy. The main outcome was that the music therapy allowed them better health and focus overall. The source allowed me to understand the difference in outcomes between senior citizen music therapy and children music therapy.

  1. Brooklyn Music School Launches New Music Therapy Program: Tradition of Music Therapy at BMS Dates Back to First World War.

Background: This source is an article boasting about Brooklyn Music School’s new music therapy program. It starts by introducing the program itself and what it offers through the school. As well as quotes from the directors themself talking about the programs and what the offers and benefits are. Lastly, the article finishes by explaining the different programs that the school offers.

How I Used It: I used in it my definition argument. I used it to introduce the idea that music therapy is for all ages, before breaking it down into children and senior citizens. More specifically the more indepth feel of music therapy, and the skills and mindset that results from music therapy. Overall skills stem from all ages, and allow for a positive occurrence. 

  1. (source) Music Therapy – Rachel Darnley-Smith, Helen M Patey – Google Books

Background: This source is basically a book that focuses on music therapy. The author takes the first chapter to go into depth about what music therapy is and what it does for different qualities and programs. The rest of the book contains a lot of different aspects of music therapy. The end of the book contains pages of a timeline about music therapy such as conferences, books, courses and so on. The timeline is from 1958 up until now. 

How I Used It: I used this in my definitions argument. This was the first source that was introduced in my argument.  I used this source to really define what music therapy actually is and dives into the relationship between music therapy and self. The quote itself from the source discusses the type of therapy this really is. The emotional, mental, physical and skills stemming from music therapy. 

  1. Bunt, Leslie, and Catherine Warner. “Music Therapy .” Grove Music Online, (new link) Music therapy | Grove Music (

Background: This source is broken into 6 different categories which involve the history, process, applications, experience, research and conclusion that revolves around music therapy. The Historical and Context uses information from all over the world from the 19/20 centuries. The Music therapy process breaks the section down into three different sections including sound elements, development patterns and music in sessions. Overall, the range of music therapy and every in-depth aspect. 

How I Used It: I used this in my definition argument. I used this source to describe the music therapy and music access within schools. I chose a quote to show how many more schools have begun to implement music therapy programs and the specific type of programs offered. I introduced it by talking about the professions that can stem from music therapy then went into this article. 

  1.   (final source)

Background: This source is a 14 minute long video. The professional and narrator throughout the video is Amy Standridge of Oak Song Music Therapy. Throughout the video slides are shown with some bullet points to get a little bit more information while Amy narrates and explains the slides more in depth. The video also includes some videos from the music therapy session itself to provide examples.

How I Used It: I will be using this in my definition’s argument. It will be present in my rewrite once uploaded. Although I have deleted and added some sources this is a very useful source. This source is used to explain from a professional in video form. So, it will be used to describe and explain the music therapy from that video and the therapy as a whole. 

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